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June 02, 2016, at 08:27 AM
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FieldOps

Revision: November 02, 2016, at 08:47 AM


1 Authorised Operations


2 Pilot Qualification


3 Microlight Aircraft


4 Special Operations


1 Authorised Operations

1.1 General Rules

  • No Microlight Aircraft shall be operated within controlled airspace except as authorised by the appropriate Air Traffic Control (ATC) Unit and in accordance with such conditions as may be specified.
  • No Microlight Aircraft shall be operated when the surface wind speed is in excess of 75 percent of the Aircraft's stall speed.
  • A Microlight Pilot Certificate allows the pilot to operate both Microlights as defined in Part 103 and AC103, and Light Sport Aircraft as defined in Part 61.5.n

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1.2 Cross Country Flights

  • Any cross-country flight in a Microlight Aircraft conducted by the holder of a Novice Pilot Certificate or equivalent shall be authorised by an Instructor.
  • Prior to undertaking a cross-country flight or any flight during which it is proposed to proceed beyond gliding distance of land in a Microlight Aircraft, the pilot shall advise a responsible person of his/her intentions and shall specify any action that shall be taken by that person if he/she does not receive notification of the safe termination of the flight.
  • Appropriate Aeronautical topographical charts shall be carried on all cross-country flights in Microlight Aircraft.
  • When it is intended to proceed beyond gliding distance of land in a Microlight Aircraft:
    • A life jacket shall be worn by each person on board.
    • The pilot shall comply with the condition specified above.

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1.3 Low Flying

  • For Instructional purposes, any Senior Instructor shall be deemed to be authorised to operate to 200ft AGL under CAR Part 103.153.
  • For other purposes (eg Competitions, Lolly Drops), the pilot will be required to obtain an authorisation and briefing from a Senior Instructor prior to the flight. This authorisation may be given to operate to 200ft AGL under CAR Part 103.153.
  • Responsibility for the safe conduct of the flight will rest with the pilot in command, under CAR Part 103.
  • Except for take-offs and landings, missed approaches and the exceptions stated above, operations below 500ft AGL are not permitted.

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1.4 Pilot Training

  • Clubs shall ensure that they have available for Student members requiring training, access to RAANZ Pilot Training Manuals, Pilot Logbooks, and qualified Instructors.
  • Clubs shall ensure that training given under their jurisdiction conforms to the contents of the RAANZ Instructor Manual.
  • It shall be the responsibility of RAANZ to ensure that Instructors maintain a uniform high standard of training. This is to be achieved through Authorised Testing Officers giving Instructor re-tests.
  • No affiliated Club or group may carry out Microlight training or Instruction unless such training or Instruction is at all times under the supervision of a RAANZ appointed Instructor.

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1.5 Conditions of Instruction

  • Only persons who are financial members of a club, group or operators affiliated to RAANZ and financial members of RAANZ are eligible to obtain a RAANZ Microlight Instructor Certificate.
  • If the membership of an Instructor lapses, his/her Instructor rating becomes invalid until such time as membership is renewed.
  • All Instructors are required to instruct under the control and direction of the affiliated club that the (Senior)Instructor belongs to.

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1.6 Renewal of Certificate

  • It is the responsibility of the holder of any Certificate to ensure that application for renewal, with all requirements met, is made in sufficient time before expiry to ensure continuity.

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1.7 Application for Pilot Certificates

  • All Microlight Pilot Certificate Applications must be received by RAANZ for processing within 28 days of the Flight Test. All sections of the form must be completed. Forms incorrectly completed will be returned to the Instructor for correction.

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1.8 Out of area certificate issue and renewal

  • Club members, whenever possible, should use the services of their local instructors for issues, renewals and upgrades.
  • If a pilot chooses to go outside the local area instructors, for whatever reasons, the correct procedure is for the outside area instructor to talk with the local area instructor(s) to ascertain any reason for not proceeding with the applicant pilot's flight test.
  • If the view from the local instructor(s) is that the candidate should not hold that rating/renewal then the flight test must not proceed.
  • The applicant pilot may appeal this judgment to a review with the Operations Officer and RAANZ CEO.

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1.9 Overseas Microlight Pilots

1.9.1 Cross-Crediting of Foreign Certificates

Visiting overseas pilots can apply for a RAANZ certificate by meeting the following requirements:

  • Becoming a member of RAANZ either directly or through a RAANZ affiliated club.
  • Providing evidence that the overseas certificate held is equivalent to the RAANZ certificate sought.
  • Passing the RAANZ aviation law examination.
  • Satisfying a RAANZ Senior Instructor that he/she meets the standard set by RAANZ for the issue of the certificate type applied for.

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1.9.2 Short Term Operation using Foreign Pilot Certificates/Licences

Pilots visiting for a period of less than one month may fly using their foreign certificate and a logbook endorsement from a RAANZ Senior Instructor by meeting the following:

  • Becoming a member of RAANZ either directly or through a RAANZ affiliated club.
  • Satisfying a RAANZ Senior Instructor that he/she meets the standard set by RAANZ for the issue of a RAANZ certificate equivalent to the foreign certificate held.
  • All flying is done under the supervision of the instructor named in the pilot's logbook endorsement.

Note: The Instructor is responsible for ensuring the pilot is fully briefed for the activity to be undertaken, particularly with respect to Aviation Law. back to top

1.10 Introductory and cost-sharing flights

1.10.1 Private cost-sharing flight

An appropriately rated pilot may take a passenger on a cost-sharing flight provided the flight is carried out as specified in CAR Part 001-

  • the flight is not advertised to the public
  • the pilot and passenger share equally in the direct running cost of the flight
  • the pilot receives no payment or other reward for his/her services
  • no other payment or reward is required of the passenger

Such a cost-sharing flight is deemed not to be an operation for hire or reward.

1.10.2 Public introductory flights

Publicly advertised introductory flights may be carried out under the following conditions-

  • the flight is conducted by a Flight Instructor or Senior Flight Instructor
  • the pilot receives no payment or other reward for his/her services
  • the club may charge a fee for temporary membership of the club and flight costs

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2 Pilot Qualification

2.1 Overview of Certificate Structure

This section describes how RAANZ certificates are structured.

  • The Novice and Intermediate certificates are learning certificates. The purpose of these certificates is to create a safe learning environment with strong ties back to our Instructors.
  • The provision of an Advanced Local and Advanced National certificate reflects the different needs of our pilots and our aim is to have pilots advance to one of these certificates as soon as practical.
  • Traditionally pilots of microlights did not cover large distances and tended to operate inside their local patch. The Advanced Local Certificate reflects and protects this type of operation.
  • The Advanced National Certificate is designed and intended to be our equivalent to a Part 61 PPL licence. Pilots operating cross country capable machines will require this extra level of experience. A pilot who attains this certificate will have demonstrated competency to a similar level as a PPL except that no instrument flight instruction is included.
  • The difference between local and national advanced certificates is an extended cross country requirement and mandatory FRTO examination pass and Controlled Airspace Knowledge test. Note that the FRTO and Controlled Airspace Knowledge test may be added or required for the Advanced Local certificate if the area of operations dictates this. Both levels of Advanced certificate require the pilot to demonstrate competence to the same standard during flight tests.
  • Passenger ratings are the most significant responsibility that a pilot accepts and to reflect this a passenger rating is now available only to Advanced Local and Advanced National certificated pilots.
  • RAANZ recognises the need to ensure that pilots of cross country capable machines have a skill set that matches the requirements of that machine and the types of flights that it will undertake. Much of the push for change in this manual has been precipitated by these types of operations.
  • RAANZ is also aware of the need to keep the requirements for cabbage patch flyers and pilots of lower performance machines simple and achievable. The organisation is committed to protecting the rights and privileges of pilots of the most basic flying machines.

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2.2 Transitional arrangements.

This section has expired and been deleted

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2.3 Pilot Certificate Classes

All Pilot Certificates shall be endorsed with ratings in accordance with the schedule below:

  • GROUP A - Valid for the operation of Weight Shift Part 103 aircraft only.
  • GROUP B - Valid for the operation of 2 or 3-axis control Part 103 aircraft only.
  • GROUP H - Valid for the operation of Part 103 Helicopters.
  • GROUP P - Valid for the operation of Part 103 Powered Parachutes only.
  • GROUP G - Valid for the operation of Part 103 Autogyro only.

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2.4 Novice Pilot Certificate

2.4.1 Requirements for Application or Renewal

An applicant for a Novice Pilot Certificate must:

  • Be a current RAANZ member
  • Be at least 16 years of age
  • Provide proof of Medical Fitness
  • Provide application or proof as Fit and Proper
  • There is no minimum flight time experience for this certificate
  • There is no flight test for this certificate

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2.4.2 Privileges and Limitations

A Novice Pilot Certificate authorises the holder to act, under the supervision of an Instructor, as pilot-in-command of a Microlight Aircraft that is not carrying a passenger, for the purpose of:

  • Increasing their skill in order to qualify for the issue of a Certificate of higher qualification or
  • Engaging in flying practice in order to qualify for a Certificate that is no longer valid.
  • A Novice Pilot may not carry a passenger under any circumstance
  • ALL flights must be approved by a RAANZ Instructor
  • During all dual flights with an instructor the instructor is Pilot in Command
  • Before first Solo flight approval is given a Novice Pilot must meet the requirements of Solo Flight.
  • Continued solo authorisation requires a dual check at least every 90 days.
  • Remote Supervision is available. The conditions outlined in Remote Supervision must be complied with.
  • The Novice Pilot Certificate will be valid for the maximum of One Year.

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2.5 Intermediate Pilot Certificate

2.5.1 Requirements for Application or Renewal

An applicant for an Intermediate Pilot Certificate must:

  • Be a current RAANZ member
  • Hold a Novice Certificate or higher or meet the requirements of this certificate
  • Comply with Medical Fitness and Fit and Proper requirements
  • Prior to undertaking a flight test an applicant shall have completed at least 25 hours Flight Experience, except for Powered Parachutes the applicant shall have completed at least 15 hours Flight Experience
  • Prior to undertaking the flight test for an Intermediate Pilot Certificate applicant will be required to provide proof of a pass in a written examination in the following subjects:
    • Aviation Law.
    • Microlight Air Navigation.
    • Micro Meteorology
    • Aircraft Technical Knowledge Microlight Aircraft
    • Microlight Pilot Human Factors.
    • For Autogyro operations only Rotary Wing Technical Knowledge.
    • FRTO ( If a radio is used )
The detailed syllabus of examination in the above subjects is set out under heading Pilot Examinations. Information detailing acceptable equivalent examinations is included there.
  • Be flight tested by a RAANZ Instructor to demonstrate their general knowledge and ability to perform competently those normal and emergency flight maneuvers applicable to the type of Microlight Aircraft on which they are being flight tested. The syllabus for the flight test is set out under heading Pilot Flight Test.
and
  • If the area of operation (10NM from the base field) includes controlled airspace:
    • Have completed the requirements set out under Controlled Airspace Knowledge and have a log book endorsement documenting this.
    • Provide proof of a pass in a written examination for FRTO

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2.5.2 Privileges and Limitations

  • An Intermediate Pilot Certificate authorises the holder to act as pilot-in-command of a Microlight Aircraft for the purpose of increasing their skill in order to qualify for the issue of a Certificate of higher qualification.
  • An Intermediate Pilot may not carry a passenger under any circumstance
  • All flights are limited to 10NM radius from the Base field of operation.
  • Each and every base field (from which the maximum 10NM restriction applies) requires a briefing from (and may require a dual flight with) a RAANZ Instructor, depending on the area. This instruction will include all local procedures, especially airspace requirements, and evidence of this will be recorded in the Pilots Log Book. The instructor may limit the approved area of operations to less than 10NM depending on the local environment. If the pilot has not met the requirements of Controlled Airspace Knowledge and FRTO the approval will specifically state that approval is NOT given for entry into controlled airspace.
  • All flights further than 10NM must be approved by a RAANZ Instructor and will only be approved if they form part of the pilots ongoing training program (ie solo cross county exercises)
  • Remote Supervision is available. The conditions outlined in Remote Supervision must be complied with.
  • The Intermediate Pilot Certificate will be valid for a maximum of One Year, subject to any conditions or reduced period specified at the Instructor's discretion.
  • If the holder of an Intermediate Pilot Certificate has not carried out at least three take-offs and landings in a Microlight Aircraft in the preceding 90 days a dual check with an Instructor is required to regain currency.

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2.6 Advanced Local Pilot Certificate

2.6.1 Requirements for Issue and Renewal

An applicant for an Advanced Local Pilot Certificate must:

  • Be a current RAANZ member
  • Hold an Intermediate Certificate or higher or meet the requirements of this certificate
  • Comply with Medical Fitness and Fit and Proper
  • Prior to undertaking a flight test an applicant shall have completed at least 40 hours Flight Experience.
  • Shall have complete the cross-country flights as set out under heading Local Cross Country
  • Be flight tested by a RAANZ Instructor to demonstrate their general knowledge and ability to perform competently those normal and emergency flight maneuvers applicable to the type of Microlight Aircraft on which they are being flight tested. The syllabus for the flight test is set out under heading Pilot Flight Test
and
  • If the area of operation is to include controlled airspace
    • Have completed the requirements set out under Controlled Airspace Knowledge and have a logbook endorsement documenting this.
    • Provide proof of a pass in a written examination for FRTO

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2.6.2 Privileges and Limitations

  • An Advanced Local Pilot Certificate authorises the holder to act, but not for remuneration, as pilot-in-command of a Microlight Aircraft.
  • Unless the provisions under section 2.8 Passenger Rating are met the certificate shall be endorsed NOT PASSENGER RATED.
  • All flights are limited to a maximum of 50NM radius from the Base field of operation.
  • Each base field (from which the maximum 50NM restriction applies)requires a briefing from (and may require a dual flight with) a RAANZ Instructor, depending on the area and pilot experience. This instruction will include all local procedures, especially airspace requirements, and evidence of this will be recorded in the Pilots Log Book. The instructor may limit the approved area of operations to less than 50NM depending on the local environment. If the pilot has not met the requirements of Controlled Airspace Knowledge and FRTO the approval will specifically state that approval is NOT given for entry into controlled airspace.
  • All flights outside the approved area must beapproved by a RAANZ Instructor
  • Remote Supervision is available. The conditions outlined in Remote Supervision must be complied with.
  • The Advanced Local Pilot Certificate will be valid for a maximum of Two Years, subject to any conditions or reduced period specified at the Instructor's discretion.

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2.7 Advanced National Pilot Certificate

2.7.1 Requirements for Issue and Renewal

An applicant for an Advanced National Pilot Certificate must:

  • Be a current RAANZ member
  • Hold an Intermediate Certificate or higher or meet the requirements of this certificate
  • Complies with Medical Fitness and Fit and Proper requirements
  • Have completed the cross-country flights as set out under heading National Cross Country
  • Have completed the requirements set out under Controlled Airspace Knowledge and have a logbook endorsement documenting this.
  • Prior to undertaking a flight test an applicant shall have completed at least 45 hours flight experience.
  • Provide proof of a pass in a written examination for FRTO. The detailed syllabus of examination in the above subjects is set out under heading Pilot Examinations. Information detailing acceptable equivalent examinations is included there.
  • Be flight tested by a RAANZ Instructor to demonstrate their general knowledge and ability to perform competently those normal and emergency flight maneuvers applicable to the type of Microlight Aircraft on which they are being flight tested. The syllabus for the flight test is set out under heading Pilot Flight Test.

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2.7.2 Privileges and Limitations

  • An Advanced National Pilot Certificate authorises the holder to act, but not for remuneration, as pilot-in-command of a Microlight Aircraft.
  • Unless the provisions under section 2.8 Passenger Rating are met the certificate shall be endorsed NOT PASSENGER RATED.
  • The Advanced National Pilot Certificate will be valid for a maximum of Two Years, subject to any conditions or reduced period specified at the Instructor's discretion.

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2.8 Passenger Rating

2.8.1 Pilots holding a RAANZ Advanced Local Certificate or Advanced National Certificate may be flight tested for a Passenger Rating.

  • Pilots wishing to carry passengers must have completed a minimum of 45 hours Flight Experience including a minimum of 35hrs PIC, except in the case of Powered Parachutes the minimum is 30 hours Flight Experience.
  • Pilots must demonstrate to a RAANZ Instructor competency in a 2-seat Microlight Aircraft and receive a briefing on issues relating to carrying passengers. The briefing shall specifically cover :
    • Aircraft performance limitations and loading especially with regard to heavy passengers
    • Pilot attitudes and their responsibility, in particular, to innocent and trusting non pilots
    • Passenger fear and possible reaction to the flight experience
    • Passengers ability to jeopardise flight safety
    • Briefing of passengers on aircraft operations and emergency procedures.
  • Following the successful completion of this flight test a new Certificate shall be issued Passenger Rated.
  • The holder of a Passenger Rating shall not exercise the privilege unless they have carried out at least three take-offs and landings on type in the preceding 90 day period. A pilot may regain currency by flying solo or dual with an instructor, at their discretion.

2.8.2 Pilots applying for a passenger rating will be reminded that holding this rating is dependent on the pilot continuing to demonstrate responsibility to flight safety.

  • A pilot's passenger rating may be suspended, effective immediately, at discretion of an instructor, following legitimate concerns about the pilots attitude to flight safety.
  • Once a Passenger rating is suspended a hearing between the pilot, the suspending Instructor, the Club President (or other club office holder in their absence) , and the Club CFI (or acting Club CFI in their absence) will decide the length of the suspension.
  • This hearing will take place within 7 days.
  • At the end of the agreed suspension period the pilot may be flight tested and on passing the flight test have the suspension lifted.
  • The initial suspension, the result of the club hearing and the result of the flight test to re-instate the passenger rating shall be recorded in the pilots logbook and RAANZ administration should be advised immediately.
  • After the Club hearing the pilot may appeal for a final, and binding, review to RAANZ.
  • At least two from the following shall conduct this review;
    • The RAANZ Operations Officer
    • The RAANZ Chief Executive Officer
    • The RAANZ President
  • The review will be completed within 7 days of the request.

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2.9 Microlight Instructor Certificate

2.9.1 Requirements for Issue and Renewal

2.9.1.1 An applicant for an Microlight Instructor Certificate must:

  • Be a current RAANZ member
  • Hold an Advanced National Certificate or higher or meet the requirements of this certificate,
  • Comply with Medical Fitness and Fit and Proper requirements,
  • Have completed not less than 150 hours Flight Experience in powered aircraft, which shall include at least 10 hours in Microlight Aircraft and at least 10 hrs cross country in powered aircraft.

2.9.1.2 If this is an initial issue-

  • The applicant shall first seek a supervising RAANZ ATO and discuss with him the applicant's suitability for the role, identifying any areas that may require further training or experience, and assessing interpersonal and communication skills. This training may be a mixture of flight and briefing work and may be carried out by other instructors as well as the supervising ATO. A list of RAANZ ATOs can be found here.
  • The applicant shall also seek formal recommendation from his/her club, supporting their considerations for the role of Instructor and confirming the ATO who will be supervising the process.
  • Instructor training shall include how to give a briefing and demonstrate the flying skills required for each element of the pilot training syllabus. These shall be progressively signed off in the applicant's logbook. Emphasis should also include utilising the correct instructional techniques (eg the phases of 'teaching the skill'). The CAA Flight Instructor Guide should be used for reference throughout and for future training of students
  • Prior to undertaking the flight test for initial issue, shall demonstrate to a RAANZ Authorised Testing Officer their knowledge of all aspects of microlight aviation by completing a Microlight Instructor Oral Examination including the following subjects:
    • principles of flight;
    • VFR operations with particular emphasis on airspace considerations;
    • the preparation and operation of Microlight Aircraft (oral and practical);
    • micro meteorology;
    • Low Inertia performance characteristics;
    • the RAANZ certificate structure and use of the appropriate administration forms and manual;
    • Where candidates have most of their Flight Experience in Part 61 Aircraft special consideration shall be placed on "Low Inertia" performance characteristics;
    • Candidates will be assessed on their interpersonal skills and ability to pass information to a student;
  • Evidence of this examination will be recorded in the pilots logbook
  • The applicant shall then demonstrate to a RAANZ Authorised Testing Officer their ability to give Instruction on Microlight Aircraft and demonstrate their ability to fly a Microlight Aircraft (within the Groups for which they have ratings) by completing a Microlight Instructor Flight Test as follows:
    • The flight test will be performed in a suitable two place machine.
    • The flight test should cover all of the elements of the Pilot Flight Test as well as reviewing instructional technique using one of the lesson plans from the Instructor Guide.
    • Instructors training in 3 axis aircraft should use an aircraft that is approved to perform wing drop stalls and this exercise should be part of the flight test.
  • The application for a Microlight Flight Instructor Certificate shall be made using the Instructor Application Form (including the club recommendation, the nominated supervising ATO, and evidence of satisfactory completion of the oral examination and flight test), along with the signed off CMV form.

2.9.1.3 If this is a renewal of an existing Instructor rating the ATO should check that the candidate has completed a RAANZ approved Instructional Techniques Seminar within the first 2 years of holding this rating.

2.9.1.4 The Microlight Instructor Examination and Flight Test is expected to be carried out by the ATO responsible for the candidate and associated club. If for any reason this is not possible or practical, the out of area rules must be followed by the assessing ATO.
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2.9.2 Privileges and Limitations

2.9.2.1 The holder of a Microlight Instructors Certificate may exercise the privileges of an Advanced National Pilot and

  • Give flight and ground Instruction in Microlight Aircraft.
  • Authorise solo flight but not a pilots first solo flight.
  • Issue type ratings for type the instructor is type rated on.
  • May receive payment for their time instructing on the ground. '''NOTE: it must be clear that the student is following a structured course of learning towards a pilot certificate and the operation is an accepted part of the local clubs operations. This is NOT a mechanism for commercial operations or joy rides or adventure aviation in any form, under the guise of trial flights or instruction.
  • The holder shall not exercise the privileges of their Certificate unless within the immediately preceding 90 days they have carried out at least three take-offs and landings in a Microlight Aircraft
  • The Instructor Certificate will be valid for the maximum of One Year.

2.9.2.2 Only a Senior Instructor may:

  • Authorise a first solo flight.
  • Flight test applicants to the level of Advanced Pilot.
  • Flight test applicants for a Passenger Rating

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2.10 Senior Microlight Instructor Certificate

2.10.1 Requirements for Issue and Renewal

2.10.1.1 A Microlight Instructor shall be considered provisional until at the discretion of their sponsor ATO they may be upgraded to Senior Instructor.
2.10.1.2 An applicant for a Senior Microlight Instructor Certificate must:

  • Be a current RAANZ member
  • Hold an Microlight Instructor Certificate or meet the requirements of this certificate, and
  • Have performed minimum of 50 hours Instructing time and
  • Have a total Flight Experience of 200hrs on powered aircraft and
  • Have acted as the primary instructor responsible for managing at least 2 students training programs from ab initio to first solo and
  • Have completed an approved Instructor Skills Seminar

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2.10.2 Senior Instructor privileges for groups that are not held

2.10.2.1 A Senior Instructor may perform the following reviews / ratings for groups that are not on their certificate.

  • Perform Biennual Flight Reviews
  • Upgrade from Intermediate to Advanced
  • Upgrade from Local Advanced to National Advanced

2.10.2.2 Note: This intent is to allow pilots of the less common groups (P,G,A) to have access to instructors for upgrades and renewals. It is not intended that an instructor would perform these services if another instructor who is rated on the required group is available. It is not intended that abinitio or type instruction would be given. Pilots need to be trained to intermediate level by instructors rated on the appropriate group. Instructors wishing to exercise this privilege require a letter of authorisation from RAANZ.

2.10.3 Type Rating Privileges for Senior Instructors

2.10.3.1 A Senior Instructor may self rate on type with the assistance of a properly rated and experienced non instructor pilot.

  • The non instructor will be guided through the rating process by the instructor so that all aspects of a rating are covered.
  • The non instructor pilot shall be pilot in command until both pilots agree that the instructor is competent on the type and assumes pilot in command status.
  • Before flying the type the instructor should seek a phone briefing from an experienced rated instructor and have access to all relevant information from the aircraft manufacturer.

2.10.3.2 If there is NO other practical way for a type rating to be attained a Senior Instructor who has experience in machines with similar characteristics within the same group, may choose to self rate on type.

  • Before flying the type the instructor should seek a phone briefing from an experienced rated instructor and have access to all relevant information from the aircraft manufacturer.

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2.11 Renewal procedure for current Part 61 Instructors

A part 61 instructor who has been issued with a RAANZ Senior Instructor rating may renew their rating without sitting a flight test with an RAANZ ATO provided that :

  • The date for their next flight test for the Part 61 licence and the RAANZ instructor rating are syncronised. The RAANZ rating can not exceed the expiry date of the Part 61 flight test coverage current at the time of application
and
  • A photocopy of the logbook entry for the Part 61 flight test is provided
and
  • A photocopy of their logbook is provided documenting currency in a microlight type at the time of renewal
and
  • The instructor maintains continuous RAANZ membership
  • This documentation should be included with the usual CMV form and sent to RAANZ administration.
  • The intent of this procedure is to allow instructors who hold dual Part 61 and RAANZ ratings to easily renew their RAANZ rating.
  • To maintain the information loop with RAANZ and their instructors, all Part 61 Instructors holding a RAANZ microlight instructor rating are required to be full financial members of RAANZ and encouraged to participate in our instructor seminars and workshops.

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2.12 Authorised Testing Officer

2.12.1 ATO Appointments

RAANZ will from time-to-time appoint experienced Senior Instructors as Authorised Testing Officers. The position of ATO is an extra level of responsibility that we may ask an exceptionally experienced and respected RAANZ instructor to shoulder. It is important to note that an ATO rating is not a higher flight certificate level that Instructors may apply for, but an appointment that RAANZ executive in consultation with our existing ATO network may make at its discretion.

While an ATOís principal responsibility is to flight test RAANZ Instructors, it is also expected that they will uphold and represent RAANZ policies at a high level and be a 'mentor' for other instructors. The flight standards an ATO expects at an Instructorís annual flight review should set the appropriate flight standards required of all RAANZ pilots.

The ATO appointment is enduring while the ATO holds a current Senior Instructor Rating and may be reviewed at any time at RAANZ's discretion.

The RAANZ executive may at its discretion accept as a test for an ATO, any form of flight test considered by the Operations Officer to be equivalent. Generally it is preferred that ATO's flight test with other ATO's as this positively supports the concept of an ATO network.

New candidates will already be Senior Instructors , have no less than 500 hrs Flight Experience on powered aircraft and no less than 100 hrs of instructing time logged.
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2.12.2 ATO Privileges

  • An ATO may exercise the privileges of a Senior Instructor as in para 2.9.2 relating to Microlight Instructors certificates, and may instruct and flight test all classes of applicant for Pilot Certificates, in any group rating the ATO holds.
  • The validity period of their certificate shall be 2 years.
  • In extraordinary circumstances the RAANZ executive may issue a grouping alteration for an ATO by means of an appointment.


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2.13 Medical Fitness

For any application for the issue or renewal of a RAANZ certificate the Pilot must present to the Instructor one of the following documents as evidence of a medical examination :

  • A current RAANZ Medical Declaration as set out in the Medical Declaration Form and approved by the examining Doctor or
  • Present a current CAA Part 67 pilot medical certificate or
  • For overseas pilots seeking temporary certification (less than 6 months) the medical certificate acceptable to the organisation that issued their certificate or licence.

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2.14 Fit and Proper

  • The first time a Pilot applies for a certificate within RAANZ they must complete and forward the Fit and Proper Person form or provide proof of acceptable fit and proper status.
  • The initial certificate will not be issued until the fit and proper form has been received, processed and approved.
  • Acceptable proof of an existing fit and proper person status is :
    • A current RAANZ microlight certificate.
    • A current CAA Part 61 Pilot Licence
    • An acceptable current certificate with another CAA Part 149 approved organisation.
  • Any changes or events affecting a pilot's Fit & Proper Person status must be reported to RAANZ.

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2.15 Solo Flight

  • Before the holder of a Novice Pilot Certificate engages in solo flight he/she must have Solo Logbook Endorsement stating he/she has received flight or ground Instruction from a Microlight Instructor in the following areas:
    • The setting-up and pre-flight of Microlight Aircraft.
    • Ground handling and Taxiing.
    • Effect of controls.
    • Straight and level flight.
    • Climbing and descending.
    • Level, climbing and descending turns.
    • Stall recognition and recovery.
    • Take-off, circuit and landing.
    • Going around again.
    • Engine failure both during and after take-off.
    • Forced landing without power.
    • Circuit rejoins
    • Rotorcraft only Operation behind the power curve.
    • Rotorcraft only Recovery from Pilot Induced Oscillation.
    • Powered parachute only - Canopy Collapse, Steering Riser breakage and Canopy non-inflation on Take Off.
  • The Novice Pilot's Solo Logbook Endorsement will be signed by a Senior Microlight Instructor. Autogyro operations shall be limited to the airfield circuit area.

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2.16 Remote Supervision

In situations where Student and Instructor are geographically remote flight training exercises may be conducted without the Instructor being present at the flight location provided that :

  • The pilot has gained passes in the following examinations
    • Law
    • FRTO (f a radio is used)
  • The student has received instruction and can perform all exercises described under the heading Pilot Flight Test.
  • The Instructor has flown with the student at the remote location, has given a briefing of the area of operations and observed the Student flying solo at the remote location.
  • The Instructor has endorsed the Students logbook detailing the area of operations, the maximum and minimum wind and meteorological conditions agreed to be acceptable. The endorsement will be current for no more than 90 days or 10 hours flight time , which ever occurs first.
  • On the day of the planned flight training operations the student will discuss with the Instructor the planned flight exercises, the area of operations, the current weather situation and the weather minimas that would preclude further flight for that day.
  • The Student will contact the Instructor on completion of the days flying operations for a debrief.
  • The Instructor may revoke the endorsement or require further dual at any time.

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2.17 Cross Crediting Pilot Licences/Certificates/Ratings

A RAANZ PIlot Certificate and assciated ratings can only be issued and renewed on a signed-off certificate and Membership Validation form (CMV) issued and signed by a current RAANZ Instructor. Pilots with certificates, ratings and renewals from other Part 61 and 149 organisations still require a RAANZ instructor review and sign-off for acceptance within the RAANZ system. At a minimum this will require a review of the pilot logbook and debriefing, and if the Instructor deems necessary- a flight test and further training or flight experience.
This requirement is solely to ensure and maintain standards within the RAANZ system, and is not to be taken as a slur on the standards of any other organisation.

  • Part 61 Instructor cross-crediting is permiited- see 2.11 Renewal procedure for current Part 61 Instructors
  • Other Part 149 Instructors applying for a RAANZ Instructor rating shall comply with and meet the requirements of section 2.9.1.2 Microlight Instructor Certificate. The ATO will judge the applicants suitability to hold an Instructors certificate or a Senior Instructors certificate following the flight test and an assesment of the instructor experience recorded in the applicants flight log. On satisfying these requirements and completing the process, the applicant shall apply to RAANZ for a Microlight Flight Instructor Certificate using the Instructor Application Form accompanied by the CMV issued by the supervising ATO.

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2.18 Flight Experience

Flight experience is

  • Time spent within the RAANZ system as a Student pilot under instruction or flying solo or
  • Time spent as a Certificated pilot flying as Pilot in Command or under instruction or
  • Time cross credited for any relevant flying experience that has been gained under a formally instructed, certificated/licenced and logged environment.

The acceptance of this time is at the discretion of the instructor and needs to be formally recorded in the candidates logbook including details of what is being accepted. Instructors may seek guidance from the Operations officer.
Examples or time that may qualify are.

  • Part 61 ( Certificated aircraft and helicopters )
  • Part 103 (Microlights) under other Part 149 organisations
  • Part 104 ( Gliders )
  • Part 106 ( Hang gliders and Paragliders )
  • Equivalent overseas certificates

Previous flight experience can be cross credited at the discretion of the instructor. The acceptance of this time will be up to 100%. The instructor will record the cross credited time in the pilots log book including details of time being accepted. back to top

2.18.1 Competency Based Training

Regardless of whether previous experience is being counted or not , each flight exercise will be reviewed and will only be signed off when competency is demonstrated. back to top

2.18.2 Minimum Times

These are minimums. In many cases candidates for a certificate will accumulate more time than the minimum. This is normal. A candidate will be progressed only when their instructor is satisfied that they have sufficient experience and competence to hold that appropriate certificate. back to top

2.19 Controlled Airspace Knowledge

  • All pilots operating in controlled air space must have satisfied an instructor of their knowledge of practical requirements and procedures relating to the use of controlled airspace. Time will be spent in the classroom and the air to review the candidates understanding. After a successful demonstration the instructor will endorse the pilots log book.
  • Knowledge to be demonstrated
    • Types of airspace
    • Requirements for entry
    • Procedures for entry and exit
    • Identification of controlling authority ( Tower or Control )
    • At controlled airfields use of tower, ground, ATIS and uncontrolled ground movements
    • Recognition of airspace in 3 dimensions, especially layered airspace
    • Mandatory Broadcast Zone requirements
    • Transponder Mandatory requirements
    • Information on maps including VHF Radio frequencies for Airfields , ATIS and information service
    • Radio failure procedures
    • Use of transponders

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2.20 Local Cross Country

These requirements are designed to prepare pilots for cross country within their local area.

  • Prior to undertaking solo cross country exercises candidate pilots will have gained passes in the following examinations.
    • Navigation
    • Meteorology
    • Law
    • FRTO ( if a radio is used )
  • An applicant for the issue of an Local Advanced Pilot Certificate (GROUPS A,B,P,R) shall have satisfactorily completed the cross-country navigation flight training program as detailed below.

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2.20.1 Exercises to be Completed

  • A minimum of 5 hours Cross Country flying to be completed , with a minimum of 2 hours solo cross country time.
  • The program should comprise of at least 4 exercises in two sections. Some pilots may require extra dual flights.
    • A shorter dual flight(s) followed by a solo flight on the same route
    • A longer dual flight(s) followed by a solo flight on the same route with at least 3 legs.
  • The flight program should include the following elements. Typically each exercise will combine several of these elements in one flight. Emphasis is on forming good habits for the successful planning and navigation of cross country flights. :

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2.20.2 Cross country elements

  • Two exercises that include flight into or around controlled airspace. (If the local area has controlled airspace)
  • Landings at (at least) 2 different airfields.
  • One multi legged flight of at least 1 hour total time.
  • One exercise that includes flight above 5000ft ( high level navigation )
  • Two exercises that include flight between 500ft and 1000ft AGL ( low level navigation )
  • One exercise that includes flight in mountain / hill terrain. ( If this is part of the local terrain )
  • Two exercises that include in flight diversions simulating bad weather alternates.

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2.20.3 Cross country skills

The following skills should be covered during the program:

  • Preflight planning including accessing current met and notam information
  • Fuel planning and management
  • Use of AIP for planning and in flight
  • Map reading including measuring distance, course plotting and airspace recognition.
  • Use of radio, transponder and GPS ( if fitted )
  • Access to in flight information services
  • En-route decision making and diversions
  • Circuit rejoin

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2.20.4 Logbook Certification

Upon satisfactory completion of each cross-country flight, the Instructor completing the training shall endorse the applicant's logbook by notarising the particular flight as completed. back to top

2.21 National Cross Country

These requirements are designed to prepare pilots for cross country outside their local area.

  • Prior to undertaking solo cross country exercises candidate pilots will have gained passes in the following examinations.
    • Navigation
    • Meteorology
    • Law
    • FRTO
  • An applicant for the issue of an National Advanced Pilot Certificate (GROUPS A,B,P,R) shall have satisfactorily completed the cross-country navigation flight training program as detailed below.

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2.21.1 Exercises to be Completed

  • A minimum of 10 hours Cross Country flying to be completed , with a minimum of 4 hours solo cross country time.
  • Exercises completed while training for a Local Advanced Certificate may qualify toward this certificate.
  • The exercises to be completed in radio equipped aircraft
  • The program should comprise of at least 4 exercises in two sections. Some pilots may require extra dual flights.
    • A shorter dual flight(s) followed by a solo flight on the same route
    • A longer dual flight(s) followed by a solo flight on the same route
  • The flight program should include the following elements. Typically each exercise will combine several of these elements in one flight. Emphasis is on forming good habits for the successful planning and navigation of cross country flights.

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2.21.2 Cross country elements

  • Two exercises that include flight into controlled airspace.
  • Landings at (at least) 3 different airfields.
  • One multi legged flight of at least 3 hours total time.
  • Two exercises that include flight above 5000ft ( high level navigation )
  • Two exercises that include flight between 500ft and 1000ft AGL ( low level navigation )
  • Two exercises that include flight in mountain / hill terrain. ( Subject to local terrain availability )
  • Two exercises that include in flight diversions simulating bad weather alternates.

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2.21.3 Cross country skills

The following skills should be covered during the program:

  • Preflight planning including accessing current met and notam information
  • Fuel planning and management
  • Use of AIP for planning and in flight
  • Map reading including measuring distance, course plotting and airspace recognition.
  • Use of radio, transponder and GPS
  • Access to in flight information services
  • En-route decision making and diversions
  • Circuit rejoin

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2.21.4 Logbook Certification

Upon satisfactory completion of each cross-country flight, the Instructor completing the training shall endorse the applicant's logbook by notarising the particular flight as completed. back to top

2.22 Pilot Examinations

2.22.1 Aviation Law and Publications

Candidates are required to have a broad knowledge of the purpose and general coverage of the following documents or groups of documents:

  • Civil Aviation Rules Part 91.
  • NZ Aeronautical Information Publication.
  • Visual Flight Guide.
  • NOTAM.
  • AIC Supplement.
  • Civil Aviation Act 1990.
  • CAR Part 103

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2.22.1.1 Civil Aviation Rules

Candidates are required to have a practical working knowledge of the Civil Aviation Rules and documents issued thereunder which are pertinent to the operation of Microlight Aircraft under visual meteorological conditions, listed hereunder:

  • Part 91 General Operating and Flight Rules
  • Part 61 Pilot Licencing
  • Part 47 Aircraft Registration and Markings
  • Part 43 General Maintenance Rules
  • Part 12 Mandatory Occurrence Reporting
  • Part 103 Microlight Aircraft
    • Subpart A - General
    • Subpart E - Operating Rules
    • Subpart F - Flight Rules
    • Subpart G - Airworthiness and Maintenance.

2.22.1.2 NZ Aeronautical Information Publication

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2.22.1.3 NOTAMS

Candidates should have a broad understanding of the functions of these publications and the information contained in them.

Civil Aviation Act 1990 No. 98

  • Part II, Paragraph 13 Duties of Pilot-in-Command
  • Part II, Paragraphs 26 and 27 Notification of Accidents

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2.22.2 Microlight Air Navigation and Flight Planning

  • Form of the earth
    • Latitude and Longitude
    • Direction of the earth
  • Direction by the 360 degree system
    • true north
    • magnetic north
    • variation
  • Visual Navigation and Planning Charts.
    • Practical use of the charts
    • measuring tracks and distances
    • knowledge of the principal chart symbols
    • contour lines
    • airspace boundaries and types
    • special use airspace.

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2.22.3 Micro Meteorology

  • Composition of the atmosphere.
  • Atmospheric pressure
    • Units of measure
    • variation with height
    • pressure altitude
    • the effects of
    • ISA.
  • Atmospheric temperature
    • units of measure
    • variation with height
    • density altitude
    • the effects of
    • ISA.
  • Pressure systems and fronts
    • Depression or low pressure
    • anti-cyclone or high pressure
    • cold and warm fronts
    • the general characteristics of pressure systems and fronts as they occur over NZ
    • horizontal pressure
    • isobars.
  • Wind Wind velocity
    • wind-shear
    • backing and veering
    • sea breezes
    • foehn winds
    • valley winds
    • anabatic and katabatic winds.
  • Clouds
    • cloud classifications
    • effect of haze smoke and fog on visibility
    • visibility
    • fog.
  • Turbulence
    • mechanical
    • terrain
    • convectional
    • local winds
    • slipstream
    • wake
    • the evaluation and recognition of potential areas of low-level turbulence and its potential effect on the operation of Microlight Aircraft
    • mountain waves.
  • Aviation meteorological organisation
    • Terms and abbreviations used in meteorological forecasts and reports
    • procedures for obtaining pre-flight meteorological information.

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2.22.4 Aircraft Technical Knowledge Microlight Aircraft

  • Properties of the air
    • density
    • variation of density with changes of temperature, pressure and height.
  • Principles of flight
  • Meaning and significance of terms associated with aerodynamics
    • thrust
    • drag
    • lift
    • weight
    • aerofoil
    • angle of attack
    • centre of pressure
    • stalling
    • spinning
    • drag (induced and parasitic).
  • Propellers
    • Pitch
    • effect on engine and aircraft performance of fine and coarse pitch propellers
    • reduction drives
    • propeller care.
  • Engines
    • Principles of operation and associated systems
    • ignition
    • cooling
    • carburation
    • fuel
    • oil
    • carburettor heat
    • control of engines and indications of performance
    • mixture control.
  • Airframe
    • recognition of airframe defects generally with particular emphasis on landing gear, flying controls and their associated cables, wing and tail surface attachment points, bracing wires and engine.
  • Loading
    • Knowledge of the terms centre of gravity and centre of gravity limits
    • the importance of centre of gravity position
    • knowledge of the precautions that should be taken when loading aircraft (eg. security of loads)
    • factors affecting take-off, climb and landing performance.
  • Airmanship
    • General airmanship relating to the operation of Microlight Aircraft.

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2.23 Pilot Flight Test

The test shall include an oral general knowledge test followed immediately by a pilot competency test in a single or 2-seat Microlight Aircraft.

  • General Knowledge Test
    • Aircraft documents including knowledge of loading.
    • Aircraft inspection and pre-flight check.
  • Piloting Technique Test
    • Taxiing.
    • Take-off into wind.
    • Engine failure after take-off.
    • Straight and level flight, including minimum speed level flight.
    • Level, climbing and descending turns including steep level turns.
    • Forced landing without power from a height and position nominated by the examiner.
    • Circuit rejoin procedures
  • Demonstration of three circuits:
    • Take-off into wind, circuit, overshoot from 50ft, re-circuit. (The examiner to specify the circuit parameters.)
    • Carry out a precision landing (ie. short field approach and landing).
    • Precision power-off landing.
  • Low flying exercises
    • Visual effects of low level turns in wind.
    • Bad weather configuration
    • Technique for reversing turn in deteriorating weather
    • Evaluation of a precautionary landing site
  • For 2/3 Axis aircraft
    • Approach to the stall in landing configuration with power off and with partial power. Recovery in both cases to be carried out at stall onset / hight sink rate with minimum height loss (within the stalling limitations of the Microlight Aircraft type as specified by the manufacturer).
    • Wing drop stall / Stall spin onset - Demonstrate a wing drop stall with correct recovery technique. If the manual of the flight test aircraft does not allow wing drop stalls the exercise should not be performed BUT the pilot candidate will need to show a logbook entry showing that wing drop stall exercises have been completed in the past.
    • Proof of completion of wing drop stall exercises in any aircraft approved for this maneuver is acceptable. In any event Instructor and Pilot should discuss recovery from stall / spin with rudder and typical low speed, high angle of attack, banking and out of balance scenarios leading to stall / spin entry.
  • For weight shift aircraft
    • Approach to the stall in landing configuration with power off and with partial power. Recovery in both cases to be carried out at stall onset / hight sink rate with minimum height loss (within the stalling limitations of the Microlight Aircraft type as specified by the manufacturer).
  • For Autogyros
    • Knowledge of operations behind the power curve.
    • Knowledge of Pilot Induced Oscillation and recovery.
  • For Powered Parachutes
    • Knowledge of canopy collapse, steering riser breakage and canopy non inflation on take-off.
  • The Examiner should complete the _Flight_Test_Checklist_ and submit it, with the pink copy of the Pilot Certificate Application from the "RAANZ Licence Validation and Membership'' book with the appropriate fee, to RAANZ at the current address.
  • The blue copy of the Pilot Certificate Application shall be added to the applicants pilot logbook.
  • The yellow copy remains in the "RAANZ Licence Validation and Membership'' book as the Instructors copy.

Note : Flight tests conducted on single-seat Microlight Aircraft shall include all elements of the flight test syllabus. The applicant shall be briefed by the examiner to carry out the various maneuvers to a sequence in an area in the examiners field of view. back to top

2.24 Type Ratings

  • All Microlight Aircraft require a specific type rating.
  • There are no group ratings, such as low performance, with coverage of a different types.
  • Aircraft will be considered different types if any of the following are true :
    • The manufacturer assigns them as different aircraft
    • Their airframes are structurally or functionally different
    • They have different power plants or propeller control systems
    • They have different controls or systems
  • Instructors need to assess if a pilots basic certificate level is appropriate for the aircraft to be rated on especially for an Advanced Local being rated on a cross country capable machine it may be prudent to upgrade to an Advanced National.
  • When ratings are being sought on single seat machines and no Instructors are available with experience on type Instructors may need to take advantage of experienced Pilots on type to do joint briefings
  • After completing the rating and demonstrating competence the pilots logbook will be endorsed by the instructor for the type of microlight aircraft.
  • Generally everyone needs to gain a type rating from an Instructor who holds a rating on that type.
  • RAANZ recognises any type rating given by a duly authorised person recognised by CAA or other regulatory aviation authority as being valid, As long as the person issuing the rating records their authority with the rating in the candidates logbook.

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2.25 Type Ratings for Part 61 Pilots

A Senior Instructor may issue a microlight Type Rating to a Part 61 pilot.

  • Following any necessary conversion training, the Pilot must satisfactorily pass an oral general knowledge test and a practical pilot competency test as described in Pilot Flight Test.
  • The general knowledge test shall focus on microlight specific aspects of aviation law, low inertia flight, micro-meteorology, aircraft operation and maintenance.
  • The test shall be to Advanced National standard.
  • On successful completion of the Pilot Flight Test, the Instructor shall enter the type rating details in the Pilot's logbook and issue a CMV form.
  • The Pilot shall keep a copy of the CMV form and forward the duplicate to RAANZ along with the type rating fee- equivalent to a 1 year RAANZ membership.
  • The Pilot shall be granted a 1 year Associate membership of RAANZ (ie she/he does not hold a RAANZ issued Microlight Pilot Certificate).
  • The type rating shall remain valid provided the Pilot maintains his Part 61 licence, subject to the 90 day currency requirements.

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2.26 Microlight Test Pilot

  • For the purposes of Test Flying Microlight aircraft, the holder of a valid Senior Microlight Instructor Certificate is acceptable as a Microlight Test Pilot if the instructor is rated on type, or a similar type, within the same group.
  • Other persons who require a Microlight Test Pilot Rating may apply to an ATO for evaluation.
  • Such persons will be tested to the knowledge and flight test standard of a Senior Instructor, by an ATO, except that their instructional ability will not be assessed.
  • Applicants should supply any supplementary evidence as to qualifications or experience as is available.
  • A minimum experience of 150 hours Flight Experience will be required for Test Pilot approval.
  • The approval will be valid for any Group Rating the pilot holds.
  • It is recommended that ALL test flying be carried out in accordance with AC90-89A AMATEUR-BUILT AIRCRAFT AND ULTRALIGHT FLIGHT TESTING HANDBOOK. Test Pilots will have to modify sections of this booklet to suit the type of Microlight being tested.

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2.27 Endurance Testing Endorsement

Our procedures require pilots who test fly aircraft to hold a Test Pilot rating. It is accepted that not all pilots may choose to, or be sufficiently qualified to hold a test pilot rating. But they may be rated in the test aircraft type and be completely competent to safely fly off the remaining endurance hours of the test flying schedule.

Pilots without a test pilot rating, but who want to complete the endurance part of the flight testing, can contact their ATO to discuss the possibility of exercising this option.

The following requirements will apply:

  • Minimum 150hrs TT, an Advanced Local or National Pilot certificate and a rating in the same aircraft type subject to the flight test.
  • A flight test pass conducted with an ATO to meet the standard required. The flight test may be flown in the aircraft being test flown if the applicant pilot holds a rating in that type. Alternatively the flight test may follow a type rating conducted in another aircraft of the same type and configuration to the test aircraft. Flight test emphasis will be on the pilot's ability to perform well in the areas of forced landings, glide approaches and emergency procedures.
  • The endorsement would apply specifically to the aircraft being flight tested and is valid for 12 months.
  • The carriage of passengers during the flight test period is not permitted.
  • The flight test aircraft must not be used for type ratings during the flight test period.
  • The aircraft must have a minimum of ten hours of the test flight schedule completed.
  • The initial test pilot must testify that he is satisfied that the aircraft has adequate performance and is controllable through its normal range of speeds. The test pilot would have checked that all aircraft systems operate correctly, the aircraft is correctly rigged and that all stall, spin recovery, VNE flutter checks, and other flight performance checks have been completed and documented to his satisfaction.
  • All subsequent test flying/endurance exercises and parameters will be established and documented in consultation with the original test pilot.

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2.28 Special Ratings

The following special ratings are applicable across all types once attained. Aircraft type ratings are still required on specific types.

  • Water Rating
  • Tow rating- for hang glider towing.

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2.29 Pilot logbooks

2.29.1 A novice pilot and the holder of a microlight pilot certificate must maintain an accurate and up-to-date logbook containingó

  • the pilotís name, details of aircraft type ratings, and certifications, authorisations and ratings held;

and

  • a record (including the details specified in paragraph (b)) for every flight during which the pilot acted as a flight crew member of an aircraft;

and

  • a record of each flight test, flight review, competency demonstration and flight crew competency check.

2.29.2 The following flight details must be recorded in the pilotís logbook:

  • the date of the flight:
  • the aircraft registration mark;
  • the flight time;
  • the purpose and route of the flight including the place of departure, any intermediate landing, and the place of arrival;
  • if appropriate, the name of the flight instructor or safety pilot:
  • for a training flight, details of the training exercise:

2.29.3 The logbook may be either a bound book with the details entered in indelible ink or an electronic record such as spreadsheet or database. The CAA Pilot's Logbook is the recommended form to use.

2.29.4 The logbook is to be retained permanently by the pilot certificate holder.

2.29.5 Every entry in a pilotís logbook must be made within 7 days after the completion of the flight to be recorded. If a pilot is engaged in an operation away from the base where the logbook is normally kept, the entry in the logbook must be made within 48 hours after return to base.
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3 Microlight Aircraft

3.1 Accidents and Incidents

3.1.1 Accidents

  • Any accident as defined in CAR Part 12 involving a Microlight Aircraft shall be reported to the Authority as required by the Civil Aviation Act 1990 No. 98 Part II, Paragraphs 26 and 27 Notification of Accidents
  • CAR Part 12 describes the appropriate action to take
  • Form CA005 is the recommended form

3.1.2 Incidents

  • RAANZ pilots shall report Microlight Incidents to RAANZ in the interests of aviation safety.
  • Reports should be concise and contain sufficient information (aircraft type, registration, pilot, date, time, details, contact numbers, etc) to enable RAANZ to review the incident.
  • The RAANZ Incident Report form is the preferred format
  • RAANZ will action any report received according to 9.2.1 Aircraft Incident Report Procedure

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3.3 Maintenance and Logbooks

  • Microlight Aircraft maintenance shall be the responsibility of the aircraft Owner.
  • All Microlight Aircraft maintenance shall be recorded in a Maintenance Logbook conforming to the requirements of CAR Part 91 and AC43-1. For microlights without complex systems, the RAANZ Recreational Aircraft Maintenance Logbook is recommended.
  • On sale of the Airframe, Engine or Propeller the appropriate Maintenance Logbook or section thereof shall accompany the part to the new owner for continuity.
  • RAANZ recommends that all Microlight Owners maintain their aircraft, engines and equipment, in accordance with the Manufacturer's published Maintenance Schedules.
  • The Club Safety Officer, or an Inspection Authority Holder, may, upon request from the Owner, and without prejudice, inspect the aircraft and report to the Owner any maintenance aspects affecting the safety of the aircraft.

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3.4 Microlight Inspection Authority

  • The minimum qualifications for Microlight Inspection Authorities are:
    • Current RAANZ Membership
    and
    • Licensed Aircraft Maintenance Engineer
    or
    • Engineering Trade Certificate and microlight maintenance experience
    or
    • Considerable experience in the maintenance and repair of microlights
    or
    • Experience in building, repair and maintenance of amateur-built aircraft or microlights.
  • Minimum knowledge requirements are:
    • Conversant with relevant Civil Aviation Rules.
    • Understanding of the exemptions from the Rules as shown in CAR Part 103. (Candidates should have a copy of Part 103).
    • Knowledge of standard aircraft maintenance practices, repairs to structures and fabrics.(AC43-13-1A refers).
    • Knowledge of materials used in microlights, their properties, equivalents and aircraft hardware.
    • Knowledge of propeller construction, defects, repair and balancing.
    • Knowledge of 2 and 4 cycle engines, carburation, ignition, cooling, generation and installation in microlight aircraft.
    • Knowledge of aircraft radio requirements, NZ Post Radio Licence.
    • Knowledge of modification procedure and effect of modifications on weight and balance, performance and structural integrity.
    • Understanding of the Flight Permit validation procedure, MOT 2117 and the responsibilities of being an Inspector.
    • Familiarity with CAR Part 43.
  • Persons who meet the criteria set out above may apply to RAANZ for the granting of an Inspection Authority, using the application form in the Forms Section of this Manual.
  • Applicants should attach to this form any supplementary evidence as to qualifications or experience as is available.
  • Applications will not be accepted without the Club Recommendation section completed by a Club Office Holder.
  • An Inspection Authority is valid for the length of membership of the holder, unless terminated as detailed below:
  • Applicants will be examined by the RAANZ Technical Officer against the qualifications and knowledge requirements on this page.
  • The RAANZ Executive Council will screen the application, and, if approved, will be assigned a numbered book of inspection forms. The Authority Holder will use his/her Identification/Certificate number on all Inspection forms.
  • Training shall be conducted by RAANZ as required by new developments from time-to-time.
  • RAANZ may also delegate an existing Inspection Authority Holder to assess and train any new applicant.
  • Inspection Authority Holders who have not undertaken an Aircraft Inspection for a period of One Year or have not attended a RAANZ approved refresher course in Five Years may at the discretion of the RAANZ Executive have his/her inspection authority rescinded.
  • RAANZ reserves the right to terminate any such Authority granted by it.

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3.4.1 Steps to becoming an IA

Using the _Inspection_Authority_Application_Form_ take the following steps

  • The applicant approaches his local club for their support.
  • The club will write a letter of support for the application.
  • The applicant/club approaches an existing IA to be the applicant's sponsor.
  • If the Sponsor IA feels happy with the applicant he would choose to guide him through the application process which would include
    • Review their skill set as described above. The sponsor to give a written review of the applicants skills.
    • An inspection would be conducted with the sponsor.
    • If the sponsor thought the applicants was ready for further assessment he would pass to the next stage.
    • If the sponsor thought more duplicates were required the sponsor and the applicant would continue doing duplicate inspections until he was happy to recommend the applicant pass to the next level.
    • A written report of the inspection(s) would be completed by the sponsor.
    • The applicant performs the final duplicate inspections with an IA or LAME other than the sponsor.
    • Written reports of these inspections would be completed by the existing IA or LAME. This report would include a recommendation to issue an IA rating.
  • The applicant would attach the letter of support from their club committee, written report of the applicants skill set, documentation detailing the inspections performed with the sponsor and the final duplicate inspection.
  • Applications will be submitted to RAANZ. The application would be processed as described in Inspection Authority Authorisation procedure.

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3.5 Modifications

3.5.1 General

  • Every Class 2 Microlight that is modified in any manner that may affect the airworthiness of the aircraft shall not be flown until the modification has been assessed and accepted by the RAANZ Technical Officer.
  • Modifications of Microlight Aircraft which conform to Transport Canada Aviation TP10141E require written approval from the kitset manufacturer to ensure continued conformity with this standard.
  • For microlight aircraft accepted under other acceptable standards, refer to the standard for guidance regarding continued compliance.

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3.5.2 Class 2 Modification Procedure

The procedure for acceptance of any modification for aircraft not requiring conformity to a published acceptable standard is as follows:

  • All relevant data, including photographs where possible, should be submitted to RAANZ with a request that the modification be accepted and enclosing the appropriate fee.
  • RAANZ will assess the modification for compliance with CAR part 103.209, if necessary utilising qualified outside help, the cost of which will be chargeable to the aircraft owner.
  • The Microlight will be inspected by the Technical Officer or Inspection Authority Holder for the re-validation of the flight permit.
  • The Inspection Authority Holder or RAANZ may require a test flight program of any specified duration before the re-validation of the flight permit.
  • Where a flight test program is specified, a Special Flight Permit validation will be issued for the duration of that program by RAANZ.
  • Upon satisfactory completion of the Flight Test Program, the aircraft will be re-inspected by the Technical Officer or Inspection Authority Holder with particular reference to the modification.
  • The Technical Officer or Inspection Authority Holder after satisfactorily completing the aircraft inspection will re-validate the flight permit and record the modification on the Inspection form.
  • The modification may be referred to the Technical Committee by the Technical Officer if he considers this course of action appropriate (perhaps because of complexity)

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3.5.3 Class 1 Modifications

  • Every Class 1 microlight that is modified must continue to comply with the CAR Part 103.

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3.5.4 Modifications invalidate existing flight permit

  • Any modification made to an aircraft will invalidate its existing Permit to Fly.
  • The a new Permit to Fly will be issued after the aircraft has been inspected and the modification has been approved.

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3.6 Defects

  • The pilot in command and/or the aircraft owner is responsible for reporting Defects.
  • Details of Microlight Defects may also be submitted by any RAANZ member or Club.
  • Reports shall be made on the Defect Reporting Form contained in the Forms Section of the Manual.
  • Defect Reports should be brief and concise, and shall be submitted within 1 month of the occurrence.
  • If no forms are at hand Reports may be written on another format provided the same information required on the form is supplied.
  • This is a mandatory report scheme, designed to advertise to other Microlight pilots any safety related matter involving the maintenance or operation of Microlight Aircraft, or other defects that individual Pilots have experienced and consider it advantageous that other Pilots be aware of.
  • Defects reported by this method will be assessed by the Technical Officer and Executive Council, as part of their monthly Meeting Agenda.
  • If warranted, RAANZ will publish them in Club Newsletters and the Official Medium. In any case, a monthly summary of Reports received will be forwarded to the Director, Civil Aviation Authority.
  • Defect Report details will be recorded by RAANZ and will be held by the Administration Officer.
  • Reports will be analysed when necessary to determine trends detrimental to safety, in accordance with the procedure.
  • It should be noted that the submission of this form to RAANZ does not absolve the pilot from compliance with any requirement in the Civil Aviation Act with respect to the notification of Aircraft Accidents.

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3.7 Safety Directive and Airworthiness Directive Compliance

  • Manufacturers, Importers and the Civil Aviation Authority may supply a copy of any Microlight Aircraft Safety Directive to RAANZ.
  • Upon receipt, RAANZ will forward a copy of any Safety Directive to the Director, Civil Aviation Authority, and each Registered Owner affected, at their last known address.
  • RAANZ will also publish the Safety Directive in Club Newsletters and the Official Medium.
  • It shall be the Owner's responsibility to comply with the Safety Directive.
  • A Microlight aircraft that is not in compliance with an applicable Airworthiness or Safety Directive shall not be flown.
  • Class 2 Microlight compliance shall be checked upon the annual re-validation of the Flight Permit

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3.8 Service Bulletin Assessment and Dissemination

  • Manufacturers and Importers may provide a copy of any Service Bulletin to RAANZ.
  • The Service Bulletin will be assessed by the Technical Officer and the Executive Council, and, if warranted, RAANZ will publish it in Club Newsletters and/or the Official Medium.
  • It shall be the Owner's responsibility to comply with the Service Bulletin.
  • In the case of Service Bulletins classified as mandatory by the Manufacturer, Class 2 Microlight compliance will be checked upon re-validation of the Flight Permit document.

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3.9 Type Acceptance

3.9.1 General

  • For all microlights, an identification plate shall be fitted to the main frame carrying the serial number and registration.
  • The registration letters shall be affixed as described in CAR Part 47.
  • For Groups A and P, the wing and the main frame are treated as a complete unit. Any changes of wing to the main frame shall be treated as a modification.

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3.9.2 Class 1 Microlight

  • RAANZ is responsible for acceptance and clearance of the design.
  • Class 1 Microlight Aircraft are not subject to a Flight Permit, but must still be registered using Form MOT 2187.
  • Prior to the registration of a Class 1 Microlight, the owner shall submit to the RAANZ Executive Council sufficient documentary evidence in the form of designs or specifications that the Microlight conforms to the definition of a Class 1 Microlight, and a written request for acceptance, PRIOR to application to the Civil Aviation Authority for Registration.
  • Such aircraft may be checked for conformity in the field at the request of RAANZ by an authorised person, who will forward written verification of conformity to RAANZ.
  • In the case of Microlights certified in another Country acceptable under CAR Part 103, the Owner shall produce verification from the relevant Civil Aviation Authority, or the Manufacturer, that such certification exists and has been complied with.
  • Certification from the Owner will be required that the aircraft is built in accordance with the Manufacturers instructions.
  • RAANZ will verify conformity to the definition and confirm such verification to the owner, who should submit the RAANZ acceptance along with the Registration Application to Civil Aviation Authority of New Zealand.
  • Where a hang-glider wing is to be used in the group, a microlight configuration verification shall be sought for the specific wing from the Hang-gliding Association as being satisfactory for flight.

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3.9.3 Class 2 Microlights

  • Class 2 Microlights are subject to a Flight Permit document, which is issued for the life of the aircraft, and re-validated annually by an inspection of the aircraft conducted by an Inspection Authority Holder.
  • A Flight Permit may only be issued if the aircraft has had Registration Marks allocated by Civil Aviation Authority of New Zealand. as described in this Manual, has been inspected for Conformity with the Type Design, and the standard of workmanship checked as satisfactory by a RAANZ Inspector.
  • The Flight Permit Document shall be carried in the aircraft. The current Flight Permit validation sticker shall be affixed to the aircraft in a clearly visible position.
  • Inspection Authority holders shall have to hand such information pertaining to the Microlight aircraft or Autogyros being inspected as RAANZ shall issue from time-to-time.

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3.10 Application for Certificate of Registration and Issue of Flight Permit

  • Application for a Certificate of Registration and the issue of an initial Flight Permit shall be made on CAA form CAA 2187.
  • RAANZ may recommend the issue of a Flight Permit document for a Class 2 Microlight aircraft if:
    • The aircraft is of a type which the Director has accepted as eligible for issue of a Flight Permit;
    and
    • The aircraft has been inspected by a person authorised in writing by the Director for that purpose and found to be in a safe condition.
  • Unless otherwise prescribed by the Director, a Flight Permit for a Class 2 Microlight aircraft shall continue in force for the life of the aircraft, and shall be valid for a period of 12 months.
  • RAANZ may re-validate a Flight Permit for a Class 2 Microlight aircraft for a period not exceeding 12 months, if satisfied that the aircraft is in a safe condition for flight by the satisfactory completion of an annual inspection.
  • A Flight Permit may be issued subject to such conditions as the Director considers appropriate, and where the aircraft is operated in breach of these conditions the Flight Permit shall become void and of no effect.

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3.11 Revalidation of Flight Permit

The re-validation procedure is as follows:

  • The Owner shall, at least 28 days before the expiry date of the last Flight Permit, contact an Inspection Authority holder and arrange an aircraft inspection.
  • It is the Owners responsibility to make the aircraft available for inspection. If Inspection Authority Holder is requested to travel, a charge may be made for Kms. at the current rate.
  • A list of current Inspection Authority Holders is available from RAANZ at the current address.
  • The Inspection Authority Holder will complete an Aircraft Inspection and Flight Permit Validation Form.
  • If the aircraft passes inspection, the Inspector shall affix a validation sticker to the aircraft after:
    • signing the validation sticker
    • entering an expiry date on the validation sticker 12 months after the inspection date.
  • Note: ALL sections of this Form must be completed.
  • The Inspector will forward the completed Form, together with the appropriate fee, to RAANZ at the current address.
  • RAANZ will confirm that the aircraft is registered and is an accepted type, and will enter details into their records.

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4 Special Operations

4.1 Microlight Helicopter Operations

4.1.1 Authorised Helicopter Operations

  • Part 103, Class 1 or Class 2 microlight helicopters shall be operated in compliance with Civil Aviation Rule, Part 103, Subpart F and any limitations set down in the manufacturer's flight manual applicable to the aircraft type.

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4.1.2 Pilot-in-Command Requirements

  • No person shall act as pilot-in-command of a Part 103 microlight helicopter unless that person:
    • Is the holder of a current Microlight Pilot Certificate - Helicopter issued by RAANZ
    or
    • Is the holder of a current private pilot licence (helicopter) or higher category flight crew licence (helicopter) issued by Civil Aviation Authority of New Zealand and has a type rating on the helicopter type issued in accordance with Civil Aviation Rule Part 61, Subpart B. and is a member of RAANZ;
    or
    • Is operating under the direct supervision of a Flight Training Organisation affiliated to RAANZ.
  • A pilot shall not act as pilot-in-command of a Class 2 microlight helicopter carrying a passenger by day, unless:
    • In compliance with sub-paragraphs (a) or (b) above, and has carried out as pilot-in-command on the same helicopter type, not less than 3 take-offs and 3 landings during the previous 90 days;
    or
    • Has satisfactorily demonstrated, to a helicopter instructor, continued proficiency in a helicopter of the same type.

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4.1.3 Pilot Training Requirements

  • Pilot flight training for the issue of a RAANZ Microlight Pilot Certificate - Helicopter shall only be conducted by a Flight Training Organisation or Club approved by RAANZ for that purpose, and shall generally meet those requirements necessary for qualification as a Private Pilot - Helicopter, except -
    • Pilot medical requirements may comply with the standard specified by RAANZ;
    and
    • Pilot knowledge requirements may be a standard approved by RAANZ.
  • Approval for a Flight Training Organisation to conduct helicopter training shall only be given following a written application to the RAANZ Executive.

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4.1.4 Instructor Requirements

  • Only persons holding a current RAANZ membership and a current:
    • Category C, B or A flight instructor rating (helicopter) issued in accordance with Civil Aviation Rule, Part 61, Subpart G shall give flight instruction on a Part 103 microlight helicopter for the qualification of a Microlight Pilot Certificate - Helicopter;
    or
    • Microlight helicopter instructor rating issued by RAANZ to a standard equivalent to (a) above, shall give flight instruction on a Part 103 microlight helicopter for the qualification of a Microlight Pilot Certificate - Helicopter

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4.1.5 Type Ratings

  • Every Class 2 microlight helicopter shall be subject to a type rating requirement in accordance with Civil Aviation Rule Part 61, Subpart B.
  • A type rating may be issued by an appropriately qualified flight instructor.

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4.1.6 Pilot Flight Tests

  • Only persons holding a current RAANZ membership and a current:
    • Category B or A flight instructor rating (helicopter) issued in accordance with Civil Aviation Rule, Part 61, Subpart G shall conduct a flight test on a Part 103 microlight helicopter for the qualification of a Microlight Pilot Certificate - Helicopter.
    • Senior microlight instructor (helicopter) issued by RAANZ to a standard equivalent to (a) above shall conduct a flight test on a Part 103 helicopter for the qualification of a Microlight Pilot Certificate - Helicopter.
  • Any candidate for the issue of a Part 103 Microlight Pilot Certificate - Helicopter shall comply with the eligibility requirements for issue of a Private Pilot Licence - Helicopter under Civil Aviation Rule Part 61, Subpart B, or a RAANZ equivalent, and with 28.4 of this manual and demonstrate to a testing authority:
    • General knowledge of and an ability to perform competently, those normal and emergency flight maneuvers applicable to the type of helicopter in which the candidate is being flight tested;
    and
    • An ability to comply with air traffic services practices and procedures.

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4.1.7 Maintenance Requirements

  • Prior to any flight, the pilot-in-command shall conduct a physical inspection of the aircraft to determine that:
    • The aircraft is airworthy by performing a pre-flight inspection as amplified in the aircraft flight manual including removal of covers, tie-downs and bungs.
    • Adequate fuel is on board with required reserves to either accomplish the flight or to reach planned refueling points.
    • If required, special equipment such as life jackets, life rafts and survival kits are on board the aircraft and are serviceable and properly stowed.
  • If an inspection or check made under the above provisions indicates a departure from permissible limits or malfunctioning of any part of the aircraft, or in equipment which is required for flight, the pilot-in-command shall not commence the take-off and the aircraft shall not be flown until it has been deemed serviceable.
  • The helicopter owner shall be responsible to ensure that necessary maintenance is performed on the aircraft in accordance with requirements specified by the aircraft manufacturer.
  • The standard for maintenance for microlight helicopters shall be determined by RAANZ. This standard is currently met by an appropriately rated aircraft maintenance engineer.

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4.1.8 Aircraft Unserviceable

  • Any unserviceability of a helicopter or its equipment which is found by the pilot-in-command at the pre-flight inspection or during flight and which affects, or may affect, the satisfactory operation of that helicopter, shall be rectified before further flight.
  • Furthermore, should the pilot-in-command become aware of any damage to the helicopter or any of the helicopter's systems, or considers the helicopter has suffered abnormal flight or ground loads or has acquired characteristics such as to adversely affect the safety of that helicopter, the helicopter shall not be flown until the unserviceability has been rectified.
  • Details of the unserviceability and rectification action taken shall be detailed in the Aircraft Logbook.

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4.2 Microlight Towing Operations

4.2.1 Requirements for Issue

  • No person shall act as pilot-in-command of a Microlight engaged in towing operations unless that person:
    • Is the holder of a current Microlight Pilot Certificate - Advanced (or higher) issued by RAANZ;
    and
    • Has completed a minimum of 100 hours total flight time in Microlight aircraft, which includes a minimum of 80 hours pilot-in-command;
    and
    • Has completed a minimum of 20 hours total flight time in the type of aircraft to be used in the towing operation;
    and
    • Has satisfactorily completed, within the last 24 months, an oral and practical test to be conducted by EITHER the holder of a Microlight Senior Instructor Certificate with Tugmaster endorsement, OR the holder of a NZHGPA Instructor Rating with considerable aero-towing experience.
  • The syllabus and standards for this test are contained in the "N.Z. Aerotow Manual".
  • The granting of a Tow Rating shall be entered into the pilot's logbook and signed by the Instructor

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4.2.2 Recent Experience Requirements

  • No person shall act as pilot-in-command of a Microlight engaged in towing operations unless that person complies with the recent experience requirements of the Microlight Pilot Certificate held.

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4.2.3 Privileges

The holder of a Tow Rating is authorised to aerotow Hang Gliders subject to the following limitations:

  • The Hang Glider and Pilot being towed must comply with all necessary NZHGPA requirements and approvals.
  • The Microlight and towing apparatus being used must comply with the provisions of this Manual.
  • The towing operations must comply with the provisions of this Manual and those in the "N.Z. Aerotow Manual".

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4.2.4 Tow Aircraft Requirements

Any Microlight used for towing operations shall:

  • Be an approved Type under C.A.A. Rules Part 103 and comply with the provisions of those Rules.
  • Be a Class 1 or Class 2 Microlight aircraft, but may NOT carry a passenger during towing operations.
  • Be either a Type A (Weightshift) or a Type B (2/3 Axis) Microlight aircraft only.
  • Be capable of straight and level flight at 32 knots (35 M.P.H.) T.A.S.
  • Be capable of a climb rate of 350 feet per minute with the towed aircraft attached.
  • Be capable of taking-off and climbing to a height of 50 feet A.G.L. within 85% of the available runway length with the towed aircraft attached.
  • Be fitted with a convex mirror of such a size and in such a position that the pilot can see the towed aircraft at all times.
  • Be fitted with towing apparatus that conforms to the provisions of this Manual.
  • It is recommended that suitable 2-way communication equipment be fitted to enable contact between the towing aircraft and the towed aircraft pilots.

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4.2.5 Towed Aircraft Requirements

  • The Hang Glider under tow shall comply with all requirements and approvals laid down by the NZHGPA.
  • The Pilot of a Hang Glider under tow shall comply with all requirements and approvals laid down by the NZHGPA.

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4.2.6 Tow Rig Requirements - General

  • All tow rigs will be inspected, and approved in writing for the specific Microlight aircraft to which they are fitted, by EITHER a RAANZ Inspection Authority holder OR an NZHGPA Inspector.
  • It is recommended that tow rigs manufactured or approved by the aircraft manufacturer be used where possible.

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4.2.7 Tow Rig Requirements - Tow Rope

Any rope used to connect the towing and towed aircraft during aerotow operations shall:

  • Be a minimum of 50 metres and a maximum of 100 metres in length.
  • Be of a minimum breaking strain of 150 kg and be of non-stretch material.
  • Contain a weak link at each end with the forward link being 10% stronger than the rearward link.
  • The forward link shall have a maximum breaking strain of 100 kg or 85% of the towed Hang Glider and pilot weight, whichever is the lesser.
  • Contain a drogue device situated at least 75% to the rear of the rope and of sufficient size to prevent excessive droop when towed unattached.

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4.2.8 Tow Rig Requirements - Bridle

Any bridle arrangement used during aerotow operations shall:

  • Provide for the towing point to be on or near the thrust line of the towing aircraft.
  • Be unable to foul the towing aircraft's propeller under any circumstances.
  • Be unable to foul or hinder the towing aircraft's control system under any circumstances.

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4.2.9 Tow Rig Requirements - Release Mechanism

  • All tow rigs shall contain a release mechanism at the forward AND rearward ends, the forward end release mechanism being operable by the tow pilot and the rearward end release mechanism being operable by the towed pilot.
  • Each release mechanism will:
    • Be easily operable up to 1.5 times the tow line breaking strain.
    • Be easily operable under conditions of no load (I.E. slack line).
    • Be subjected to testing prior to the first tow of any day.

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4.2.10 Aerotow Operations

  • Aerotow Launch and Inflight Operations and Procedures are specified in the "N.Z. Aerotow Manual", and shall be complied with at all times.

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(C) Copyright 1997-2008 Recreational Aircraft Association of N.Z. All rights reserved.

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